The territory’s fully developed karst relief gradually formed as a consequence of various geological factors, including the bedrock material and tectonics, as well as climatic conditions. Today Moravský kras is the most extensive and most developed karst area of the Bohemian Massif. We can classify it as a holokarst, a fully-developed karst with highly-developed karst phenomena on the surface and underground. Typical relief features here are the flattened karst plateaux, with the deep, dry canyons cut into them. Typical karst phenomena on the surface are the area’s many dolines, in which surface water rapidly soaks into the ground. Due to the irregular absorption rate of the limestone bedrock, depressions of varying size and shape have formed a rugged relief of Karren and limestone pavement fields. Other surface karst phenomena in the area include comb-shape rocks, rock windows and bridges. The great majority of these formations are the remains of old, collapsed caves. Among the karst phenomena, linking the surface with the underground are the creek sinks and resurgences. A creek sink is what we call a place where a surface stream disappears underground, and a resurgence is where the water appears from underground and flows back onto the surface again. The best known underground karst phenomena are the dripstone decorations in the caves (stalactites and stalagmites).
From a hydrographical and hydrological point of view, the territory of Moravský kras contrasts greatly from the surrounding regions. The allochtonous water flowing from the non-karst section of the Drahanská vrchovina hills almost immediately disappears underground when it crosses the geological border onto the Devonian limestone of Moravský kras. The hydrological regime of these underground flows is extremely complex and has not yet been completely researched. There are hardly any autochthonous streams in the area and the underground flows do not correlate with the surface relief. The PLA territory is divided into 3 hydrological units, of which each has its own predominantly-underground hydrological and karst system. The main flow of the northern section of Moravský kras is the Punkva underground river, which is fed by the Sloupský potok and Bílá voda streams. The Sloupský potok disappears underground at Staré skály near the Sloupsko – Šošůvské jeskyně caves. This forms the Sloupský corridor 70 – 100 m under the surface, which is a part of the Amatérské jeskyně cave system. The Bílá voda stream disappears into the Nové Rasovny creek sink; after flowing through the Holštejn branch of the Amatérské jeskyně, the Bílá voda joins with the Sloupský potok to form the Punkva. This stream flows along a mostly unknown channel to the Macocha abyss, then through the Punkevní jeskyně caves to its resurgence. Most of the 34 km long Amatérské jeskyně is formed of passages, where underground water only flows in flood situations. The central part of Moravský kras is drained by the Křtinský and Jedovnický potok streams. The Jedovnický potok, which disappears in the Rudické propadání creek sink, forms the second largest cave system in Moravský kras Rudické propadání – Býčí skála. The stream has modelled a cave corridor 13 km long, with a permanent flow. The Křtinský potok disappears in a series of creek sinks below Křtiny and flows through the lower levels of several caves, including Výpustek, and emerges near the Býčí skála cave. The majority of this system is still unknown. The southern section of Moravský kras is drained by the Ochozský, Hádecký and Hostěnický streams and the largest cave system in this area is the Ochozská jeskyně.